Seven for the Seven Stars in the Sky .

 

 

"I' ll Sing you twelve-O.

What are your twelve-O?

Twelve  for the twelve apostles, eleven for the eleven who went to Heaven

          and  ten for the Ten Commandments.

Nine for the Nine Bright Shiners, Eight for the April Rainers, Seven for the Seven Stars in the Sky

and Six  for the Six Proud Walkers. Five for the symbols at your door and Four for the Gospel Makers ... "

            . 

 

          The words come from an English folk song of indeterminate but considerable age and, almost certainly, with pre-Christian roots. Some of the lines refer to things which are quite clear while other lines are obscure. What I want to concentrate on is the 'seven stars in sky '.

            The expession 'seven stars' comes to us in a few ancient references, one of them biblical, and it is usually assumed that it refers to the the seven stars of the constellation Pleaides. However, I want to refer the book of Enoch. There are references to this book which show that it was around in biblical times up to about the time of Christ and the early church, but was subsequently lost or possibly supressed in the early centuries of Christianity. There are also three New Testament references to the man himself and he does appear in the Old Testament.

The Scottish adventurer James Bruce (born1730) found a manuscript of the lost book in Axium in about 1765 and presented his translation to the king. Though there were doubts about the genuiness of the Bruce manuscript and translation, it was found to accurately match fragments of the 'Book of Enoch The Prophet' found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, which seems to confirm the accuracy of Bruce's find. The 'Book of Enoch the Prophet' makes two references to the 'seven stars' which put a very different interpretation on the image.

            The book of Enoch mentions the stars on two occasions. One reference says:

 

            "... and there I saw seven stars of the heavens bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then I said: For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither... "    (1)

 

            The same chapter elsewhere also describes the effect of the collisions of heavenly bodies  presumably the seven stars, with Earth:

 

            "... I saw in a vision how the heaven collapsed and was borne off and fell to the earth. And when it fell to the earth I saw how the earth was swallowed up in a great abyss, and mountains were suspended on mountains, and hills sank down on hills, and high trees were rent from their stems, and hurled and sunk in the abyss ... (2)

 

            Before I go any further, let's consider what modern day science says about earth impacting objects like meteorites, comets and asteroids. Firstly it is now generally accepted that an asteroid impact somewhere in the area of the Yucatan 60 million years ago wiped out most of the dinosaurs, who had ruled the planet for 100 million years. The idea of an asteroid impact was first suggested in 1980 beause there is a very sudden cut off point in the layers of rock containing dinosaur fossils. Between the dinosaur fossil-no dinosaur fossil rocks was a thin layer of clay world wide, containing high levels of iridium, an element associated with asteroids and comets. The idea was scorned at the time because no crater could be found. Ten years later a crater of the right vintage was found in the area we know as the Yucatan and the concept has become generally accepted.

            The comet P/Shoemaker/Levy/9 broke into 12 pieces and then crashed into Jupiter in 1998, with practically every telescope on earth watching. It was a salutory lesson to science that impacts between planets and celestial objects can and do occur. Suddenly the earth seems a much more dangerous place.

            On June 30 1908 something exploded over Tunguska, in western Siberia, with the force 1000 times that of the Hiroshima bomb. It wasn't nuclear, since there was no radioactive fallout, but there fireball was seen 600 miles away and seismographs recorded the explosion 2000 miles away. Since the break up of the former Soviet Union, scientists from the west have been able to explore Tunguska more thoroughly and computer simulations have been made.  Computer models show that  meteorites under ten feet in diameter burn up in the atmosphere while big ones, more than 300 feet across survive to strike the earth's surface. Those between 10 and 300 feet across explode in the atmosphere, and that appears to be what happenened at Tunguska

.           The geologlist, Professor Robert Schoch PhD, in his book, Voices of the Rocks, says:

 

"Whether an asteroid or a comet, the Tunguska bolide was hardly an overized space object ... Thousands of comets and asteroids of much larger dimensions come close enough to Earth to pose a threat of collision. What would happen if one of them hit?

For example, let s look at the hypothesised effect of an impact with a good sized rocky asteroid - one a little over six miles in diamter travelling at 55,000 miles an hour ...

            The atmospheric effects of the impact would affect an enitre hemisphere within minutes. Assuming 10% of energy of the impact went into the blast wave, wind velocity at the epicentre would hit close to 1,500 miles an hour, about a dozen times faster than the most powerful hurricane or typhoon ... nothing short of a mountain could stand up to such a  tempest. Nor could it bear the heat. At the same distance from the blast centre, the air temperature would increase by more than 850 degrees Farenheit, incinerating buildings, melting roadways and crisping human bodies to crematorium ash.  "    (3)

 

            Schoch goes on to list other effects of impact with an extraterrestial object  things like chemical changes to the atmosphere caused by the heat generated in its flight through: formation of acid which would fall as rain, partial destruction of the ozone layer and increased carbon 14 (making carbon dating wildly inaccurate) etc. (4)

However, these effects are temporary and short lived. Longer term and, as far as animal life are concerned, far reaching effects follow from whether the impact site is on land or in the sea. He draws attention to computer simulations which show that the height at the shoreline of a tidal wave (tsunami) caused by an impact in the ocean is dependant on the depth of the sea at the impact site. In other words, if the bolide hits the earth at the site of an ocean trench five miles deep, the tsunami will be five miles high when it strikes the coast. Salt water will wash over everything, rushing far inland and will cover land based glaciers with the same effect as salting an icy garden path. The heat generated on impact will vapourise huge amounts of water, and water vapour is a greenhouse gas, so raising temperatures to help to keep the melting ice from refreezing. As Professor Schoch says:

 

"... a large amount of seawater would evaporate in the heat and would escape into the atmosphere as torrential rain clouds, which would be carried around the globe. A flood, again of global proportions would be the likely result."   (5)

 

The end of the last ice age was sudden. Scientists have for some years been puzzled to find glacial evidence of a very rapid rise of 14 degrees centigrade in world temperatures, an equally rapid and dramatic rise in sea temperatures and rapid melting of glaciers over a maximum of 150 years.

On the other hand, an impact on dry land would melt rocks, form a crater and raise billions of tons of dust, blotting out the sun, causing a prologed nuclear  winter which, in spite of the heat at impact, would be enough according to some geologists to intiate an ice age. There would be immense fires, violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as the Earth convulsed beneath the impact. There is no longer much doubt amongst scientists of a range of fields that the Chicxulub crater in the Yucatan marks the impact that wiped out the dinosaurs and possibly initiated the last ice age.

The ' Milankovitch Cycles' are thought to contribute to ice ages, but scientists have always wondered whether such slight variations in solar energy were enough on their own to trigger the beginning or end of an ice age. People like Emilio Spedicato, who wrote:

 

"The paroxystic effects associated with an oceanic impact are expected to last only a few days (the tsunami) or a few weeks (the 'universal deluge' following magmatic emmission). It is unlikely that all the ice cover can be eliminated in such a short period, and in fact this is not what is observed from geological evidence. It is, however, possible that albedo factor be modified so profoundly for the Earth to revert, in a few additional centuries, to the climatic conditions of non-glacial times. This agrees with the geological record.   (6)

 

I would suggest that not only is albido change involved in the process of ending an ice age, but changes in sea and air temperature (caused by the heat of the impacts) and in the greenhouse effect (caused by increased water vapour in the atmosphere.)

For the moment, let's look even more closely at the science, because I want you to keep it in mind when I go on to talk about myth and ancient records.

Lockheed Martin, one of the USA's biggest communications and space launch vehicle corporations, used its Sandia laboratories in New Mexico to simulate what was likely to happen when comet P/Shoemake/Levy/9 crashed into Jupiter. The simulation in advance of the event proved so accurate that the same team, led by David Crawford and Arthurine Breckenridge, did a simulation of a 1.4 kilometre comet weighing approximately 1000 million tons, crashing into the Atlantic Ocean 25 miles south of New York. First Austin Atkinson describes the computing power:

 

"They performed 54 million cell-calculations using parallel processing: thousands of computing tasks were assigned to 1500 separate processors operating on up to one trillion mathematical operations per second for 48 hours ... " (7)

 

 

This is clearly not someone sitting with a desktop PC and a few megabytes of memory making a lot of assumptions, and what the simulation found was scary - but keep it mind when you read the myths.

 

"The comet impacts with the ocean and immediately vapourises 300  500 cubic kilometres of water, forming a transient cavity in the sea. An equivalent  to 300 gigatons of TNT energy is realeased at that moment  ten times the explosive power of the entire world s stock of nuclear weapons.

Five seconds after the comet hits the ocean, a tremendous impact plume ... composed of superheated debris, earth and water smothers Long Island.

Eleven seconds after impact the New York shoreline is swamped with superheated steam and ejecta debris. A good amount of the ejected debris cloud has penetrated Earth s atmosphere on suborbital trajectories. The heat generated at impact point is in excess of 5000 degrees Celcius. New York soon succumbs to the falling molten ejecta and the heat generated by the impact incinerates cities and forests over a wide area simultaneously. The global debris cloud lowers temperatures worldwide. Then there are snowstorms and major temperature drops that last several weeks.

The Sandia simulation borders on what is described as a global catastrophe: one that is expected to cost Earth one quarter of all its inhabitants. "  (8)

 

 

Now keep in mind the science when we go on to consider history and myth. First the history.

Peturbations of the climate have been recorded over the centuries. Turner's magnificent sunsets are thought to result from dust thrown up by a volcanic eruption and the so called 'Little Ice Age' ended settlement in Greenland.

Roman hisorian Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus wrote in his Variae (C534-536 AD) about a severe downturn in climate with resultant famines. Cassiodorus's account clearly points towards a cause:

 

"How strange it is, I ask you, to see the pricipal star [i.e. the sun] not in its usual brightness; to gaze at the moon ... shorn of its natural splendour? All of us are observing ... a blue coloured sun ... we marvel at bodies that cast no midday shadow ... and this has not happened in the momentary loss of a eclipse, but has been going on equally throughout almost the entire year ... whence can we hope for mild weather, when months that once ripened the crops have been deadly sick under the northern blasts? For what will give fertility, if the soil does not grow warm in summer?  " (9)

 

 

Cassiodorus tells us quite a lot about the causes of the famine. The sun is "blue", presumably seen through dust, which would account for its weakness in casting no shadow at noon. We know from research into tree ring width (called dendrochronology) that the temporary climate change was widespread across Europe and lasted two to three years. Dust is thrown up by volcanic eruptions and quite far reaching climate peturbations can be caused in this way, but the extent, depth and length of this climate disturbance suggests some kind of intrusion from space, possibly a minor, though still significant, impact on land somewhere.

            Myth is sometimes proved to be an accurate oral tradition. The Greek myths of Troy were precise enough for Schliemann to find the remains of the city more than 2,000 years after the oral tradition was written down and after at least 500 years of oral tradition before the story was recorded.

            Another myth, written down 2000 years ago by Ovid (in C 8AD) may well also be an oral tradition of a real event, for it is fairly obvious what is recorded, if you read scientific fact into this tale of the gods and their doings. I mean the ancient Greek story of Phaethon, son of the sun god Helios, who insisted on driving his father s light-chariot across the sky, lost control of it, and crashed to earth, setting field and forests afire. Ovid continues:

 

  "The earth caught fire, starting with the highest parts. With all its moisture dried up, it split and cracked in gaping fissures. The meadows turned ashen grey; trees, leaves and all were consumed in a general blaze ...Great cities perished, their walls burnt to the ground, and whole nations with all their different communities were reduced to ashes ... the goodly earth goddess found herself entirely girdled by waters ,,, she made everything tremble ...The omnipotent father sent forth a thunderclap against the charioteer ... The fragments of the car were scattered far and wide ... Phaethon, with flames searing his glowing locks ... went hurtling down through the air, leaving a long trail behind ... one day passed without the sun: the burning fires gave light, so that the disaster served some useful purpose."  (10)

 

            There seems little doubt that, beneath the quaint wording of this story of the activities of the gods, we have an accurate description of a cometary impact, described originally by someone who saw and survived it and passed on the story as an oral tradition.

            Before we go on to examine other ancient stories, it is worth noting what the few scientists who studied ancient myths seriously have to say about the subject. Jane Sellers is an astronomer turned to archaeo-astronomer. She remarks that archaeologists often know very little about astronomy and assume that the ancients didn't either. She points to figures relating to precession of the equinoxes - well known to every astronomer - turning up in ancient myths and alignments far too often to be attributed to coincidence. She lists a series of numbers relating to precession, including 30 (degrees of the ecliptic occupied by a sign of the zodiac) 72 (number of years for the equinox to shift 1° of the ecliptic) 72 x 30 = 2160 (years for the equinox to shift one sign) 2160 x 12 = 25,920 (years in a complete circle or great year). Also occuring are 36 (half 72) and 4320 (twice 2160)

            In the 'myth' of Osiris he was killed on his return to Egypt having been away bringing civilisation to other nations. The number of conspiritors was 72. Sellers suggests that the numbers 360, 72, 30 and 12 did not find their way into the Osiris myth by chance, but were put there by people who understood - and had accurately measured - precession (11)

            The same theme - the inclusion of accurate scientific material in ancient myth - is taken up in the book Hamlet's Mill, by Santillana and von Dechend. They draw attention to the Norse myth of Valhalla in which, for the final battle with the wolf:

 

"Five Hundred doors and forty there are

I ween, in Valhalla s walls;

Eight Hundred fighters through each door fare

When to war with the wolf they go. "   (12)

 

            As Santillana and von Dechend point out, 540 x 800 = 432,000. The Rig Veda (Indian Scriptures) contains exactly 432,000 syllables (40 syllables to a stanza); there are 72 Angels in the Hebrew Qabbala, occupying the 72 rungs of Jacobs ladder. Although the total implications of the theory might stretch credibility, so does any attempt to dismiss the 'coincidences' they cite.

            So, myth can be taken seriously and as having scientific content, partially concealed beneath quaint and colourful wording. With that and the very recent scientific simulations of the effects of impact by an asteroid comet or meteorite, let us turn back to the Book of Enoch the Prophet and to the man himself.

            There are two references to Enoch, in Genesis 4:16-23 and 5:21-29, where 2 differing lines of descent are given  son of Cain (2nd son of Adam) and great grandson of Seth (third son of Adam). He is mentioned by St. Paul, who obviously had access to the traditions surrounding the Book of Enoch), by Luke, in his genealogy of Joseph (in itself a bit odd if Jesus was literally the son of God & Mary) and by the writer of the New Testament Book of Jude. In Jude 1:13-14 we are told that Enoch prophesied a great catastrophe which would befall mankind if they didn't mend their behaniour.

            Enoch also figures in Masonic tradition in a very interesting way. The Indigo Jones Manuscript was written in 1607 and records, it is generally agreed, an older oral tradition. In 1610 a J. Whytstones wrote down a broadly similar version of the Enoch story in the 'Old Charges' and history of the Craft, which he says he has transcribed from an earlier document, now lost. I reproduce here a substantial section of the Indigo Jones manuscript. It does not at this point involve Enoch, but other Masonic Tradition I will mention in a moment, ties him in very definately. The Indigo Jones Manuscript says:

 

"You ask me how this Science was Invented My Answer is this: That before the General Deluge, which is commonly Called NOAH S Flood, there was a man called LAMECH, as you may read in the IV Chapter of Genesis; who had two wives, the one called ADA, the other ZILLA; BY ADA he begat two SONS, JABAL and JUBAL, by ZILLA he had One son called TUBALL and a Daughter called Naamah: These four Children found the beginning of all crafts in the World: JUBAL found out GEOMETRY ... HIS  brother JUBAL found the ART of MUSIC ... TUBAL-CAIN was the Instructor of Every Artificer in Brass and Iron, And the Daughter found out the ART of Weaving.

            THESE Children knew well that GOD would take vengence for SIN either by fire or water; Wherefore they Wrote their SCIENCES that they had found in Two Pillars, that they might be found after NOAH S Flood.

            ONE of the Pillars was Marble, for that will not Burn with any Fire, And the other stone was Laternes for that will not drown with any Water .

            OUR intent next is to Tell you Truly, how and in What manner these STONES were found whereon these SCIENCES were written.

            THE Great HERMES (Surnamed TRISMAGISTUS, or three times Great) Being both King, Priest and Philosopher, (in EGYPT) and Lived in the Year of the World Two Thousand and Seventy Six, in the Reign of NINUS, and some think him to be the Grandson to CUSH, which was Grandson to NOAH, he was the the first that began to Learn of Astrology, To Admire the other Wonders of Nature; He proved, there was but one GOD, Creator of all things, He Divided the day into Twelve Hours, He is also thought to be the first who Divided the ZODIAC into twelve signs. He was scribe to OSYRIS King of EGYPT; And is said to have invented Ordinary Writing and Hierogiphics ... " (13)

 

            The Bible does not connect Enoch with the flood, but Jewish historian Josephus does: he stated that Enoch recorded astronomical data on two pillars (so the information would survive the flood) and the Masonic version of the story is recorded in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. An older version of the 13th degree ritual - the 'Royal Arch of Enoch' relates that Enoch, forseeing that the world would be overwhelmed by some disaster of either flood or fire, engraved certain records on two pillars, one of brick and one of stone. It goes on to say that the Jews discovered fragments of the brick one in a vaulted arch during the building of King Soloman's Temple. This sounds like another version of the Zerubbable story of the Holy Royal Arch of Jerusalem, but it is broadly in keeping with both Josephus and the Indigo Jones manuscript.

            It is also, I might observe, in keeping with a foreknowledge of an impending earth-impact of a comet, but uncertainty as to whether it would strike land or sea!

            Two geologists at the Institute of Geology at Vienna University in Austria, the husand-and-wife team of Edith and Alexander Tollmann, compiled sufficient data for them to argue that the Earth was indeed hit by a comet in the Holocene period, around 10,000 years ago. (14)

            The Tollmanns' first point was the distribution and dating of tektites - small glassy objects found around the earth and showing signs of having melted at high temperatures and resolidified, but differing in chemical composition to the rocks around them.  They are assumed to have been created as ejacta from the site of cometary impacts. In 1970, tektites were found in Australia embedded in fossilised wood carbon dated to 9.520 ± 200 years BP (before present) (15) The Tollmanns also noted that that the tektite scatter in Vietnam had been dated to about the same time using stratographic methods (16) and that tektites found in sediment layers of the Indian Ocean also date from about this time. (17)

            Using dendrochronolgy records which show fluctuations in carbon 14 levels, the Tollmanns suggest a date about 9,500 years BP. These records, they observe, tie in very closely with changes in the nitric acid level found in polar ice cores. These too peak at around 7,500 BC or 9,500 BP

 

The Tollmanns relate these established facts to a number of impacts which occurred about the same time and suggest that the 'Deluge' of the Noah/Genesis story and Utnapishtim/Gilgamesh story was caused a comet which broke into seven pieces all of which landed in the sea, causing tidal waves, floods, global warming and an end to the ice age. They also go as far as to suggest it may have prompted the 'seven stars' of the Enoch story. These two geologists even draw a map of where they think the seven cometary fragments landed.

 

18

 

It doesn't take much thought to see that, although this might have been a very far reaching catastrophe and might have caused the numerous flood stories found around the world, including the Noah and Gilgamesh tales, it couldn't have caused the end of the ice age. According to several branches of science, the ice began melting several thousand years before that. The usual dates suggested are aound 12,000 years ago. On the other hand, I find the evidence for some kind of celestial intruder at about 7640 BC very persuasive indeed. Either, there two catastrophes or the carbon 14 dating is thrown out by the increased C14 resulting from the impact itself (which does seem likely).

 

The idea of crustal displacement was suggested in the 1950s by Professor Charles Hapgood and endorsed in his later years by Albert Einstein. Hapgood's theory was that there hadn't been great increases in the extent of the ice at all but that the poles had moved, causing ice cover to move. Hapgood's early clues were from the magnetic content of rock. When a volcanic source pours out molten rock, the magnetic element aligns itself with the earth's magnetic field as it cools, so you can tell where the poles were in relation to the rock at the time the rock cooled.

 

From this feature, Hapgood suggested that the North Pole moved from Hudsons Bay to it present location about 9,600 BC, or almost 12,000 years ago. While the pole was in the Hudsons Bay Region, Britain was within the Artic Circle and much of the North Atlantic frozen. When the pole moved, the ice centred on the new pole, freeing northern Europe. Before Hudsons Bay, Hapgood claims, the pole was in the Yukon area. There are various supporting pieces of evidence, such as sea bed cores from the Ross sea which show Antarctica ice free at the height of the ice age, and evidence of ice cover in places close to the tropics. However, the main stumbling block to the theory is the lack of a trigger  much the problem with the Milankovitch cycles.

 

An interesting piece appeared in the journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada in 1998, entitled 'A Probable Cause of Crustal Shifts of the Earth: A Comet Approaching the Centre Mass of the Earth-Moon System' by Donald Tim Seitz. Because of Moon's gravitational pull, Earth and the Moon have to be taken as one gravitational unit, the centre of which varies. When the moon is behind the earth, as seen from an approaching comet, the gravitational pull is towards the centre of the earth. When the Moon is to one side or the other, however, the centre of gravity lies in the outer crust, which might move catastrophically under the impact.(19)

 

In the last 8 to 10 years geologists have have established that the earth's inner core rotates at a different speed to that of the outer crust and that, while the earth's orbit round the sun includes the slight, slow variation in the titlt of the planet, the axis of the inner core does not change. This means that as the earth's tilt increases the angle between the two axes grows larger. This, it is argued, may make the outer axis less stable and more prone to catastrophic corrections. So, by whatever trigger, a crustal shift and movement of the poles seems a more likely explanation of the facts established by geologists. Let me, however, make one more point in the debate before moving on.

 

It is an obvious logic that any two points on earth exactly opposite each other will have broadly similar weather - temperature etc. Take a point on the equator and another point on the equator 180 degrees opposite: the temperature of the two may differ because of height above sea level but they will be broadly similar. Take a point at 45 degrees north: a point on the opposite side of the globe at 45 degrees south will have broadly similar weather and temperature. The thickest Arctic ice is around Greenland at 72 degrees N/ 38 degrees W., and the thickest Antarctic ice is around 69 degrees S. However, the same distance from the N pole to the East, still at 72 degrees north, are the ice free New Siberian Islands, where remains of temperate animals - mammoths, lions, rhinos, bison and horse - have been Carbon 14 dated to 12,000 years ago ... and the opposite side of the planet is lesser Antarctica. Logic says that this area too must have been temperate at around 12000 BC. Moreover, cores from the bed of the Ross Sea, off the coast of Lesser Antarctica, agree that it was ice-free 12,000 years ago.(20)

 

I ought now to prove that there was indeed a civilisation to have been destroyed by these catastrophes. The whole of a paper I gave five years ago dealt with this subect: I mentioned the age of ruins around the world, ancient measurements providing evidence of extensive mathematical knowledge and ancient information about the dimensions of the earth and of what I referred to as 'oopparts'  (out of place parts). Since I spoke then we have seen established archeaology pushing back the dates of civilisation. Recent discoveries in Central and South America suggest that semi-civilised man was around in 35,000 BC and the idea of a land crossing of the Bering Straits around 12,000 to 20,000 BC (never a very sensible theory) has been exploded for ever. Jerico is known to be at least 8000 years old and Catal Hyak in Turkey at least 10,000 years old. On the whole, I don't think I should climb back onto this particular soap box again at least, not here and not now.

 

To bring this full circle, I have argued on an earlier occasion that myth, physical ruins, particularly the orientation of ruins, ancient written and oral tradition and symbol bear strong and clear evidence of an earlier civilisation, lost in some great cataclysm. Indeed, the Maya believed that the Earth had been destroyed on four previous occasions at the end of four great cycles of time. As we are now approaching the end of the fifth of their cycles we might do worse than look around for a cause!


Notes

 

1.         The Book of Enoch from Chapter 2 (trans  M. Black)

2.               Ibid

3.             Voices of the Rocks; Robert Schoch, p194

4.             This and several paragraphs are loosely taken from Voices of the Rocks, pp 195  198

5.             Ibid; p 196

6.             Apollo Objects, Atlantis and Other Tales; A Catastrophical Scenarion fo Discontinuities in Human History; in Journal of NEARA,  Vol 26

7.             Impact Earth; p 24

8.             Ibid pp 24-25

9.             Variae of Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, tr SJB Varnish, pp179-8

10.          Metamorphoses of Ovid; Tr.  Innes; pp 60-62

11.          The Death of Gods in Ancient Egypt; Jane Sellers

12.          Grimnissol 23, the Poetic Edda cited in Hamlet s Mill; p 162

13.          The Indigo Jones Manuscript

14.          Terra Nova 6; Tollmann, E & A; 1994; pp 209-217

15.          Australasian Microtektites ;  Glass; Bulletin of Geol. Soc. Am. 89, 1978, pp 1455-1458

16.          Age-Paradox and the Origin of Tektites; Izoch; Sec. Int. Conf. Nat. Glasses; Charles University, Prague; 1987; pp 379-384

17.          Tektites Far & Wide; Prasad & Rao; Nature, 1990; 347; pp 340

18.          Ibid, Terra Nova

19.          A Probable Cause of Crustal Shifts of the Earth; Seitz; Regulus  April 1998

20.          Appendix 6 of The Atlantis Blueprint; Colin Wilson & Rand Flem-Ath; pp 345-357

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                                    London, Virgin Books; 1999

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                                    1992

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                                    Of Geol. Soc. America, 89; 1978

Innes, M (tr.)                The Metamorphoses of Ovid, Book II; London, Penguin Classics; 1955

Izokh, E.P.                    Age Paradox and the Origin of Tektites; Sec. Int. Conf. Nat. Glasses; Charles

                                    University, Prague; 1987

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& Rao, P.S.

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